(Which tectonic plates moved?) Rescue efforts continued for over a week, then shifted into recovery mode. The Civic, the council's third home, was heavily damaged in February and was demolished. "Christchurch earthquake" redirects here. The Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate share a convergent plate boundary. The devastating earthquake that tore through Christchurch on Tuesday is the product of a new fault line in the Earth’s crust that seismologists were previously unaware of. [82][83], The Catholic Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament was also severely damaged, with the towers falling. Drone assesses Christchurch Cathedral earthquake damage Posted on: July 7, 2016 2:10 PM A still image from a video producced by a drone camera inside New Zealand’s Christchurch Cathedral showing damaged caused by the February 2011 earthquake. [220][221], Christchurch was set to host five pool matches and two quarter finals of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. The cost of the rebuild is set to be $16 million. [103], The quake was felt as far north as Tauranga[104] and as far south as Invercargill, where the 111 emergency network was rendered out of service. Limbs had to be amputated and some people suffered partial or full paralysis. [101], Twelve streets in Redcliffs were evacuated on the night of 24 February 2015 after some cliffs and hills surrounding Redcliffs were deemed unstable. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes. We will be working alongside them to give as much relief and assistance to New Zealand as we possibly can. Predictors of poor mental health after a trauma, such as mental health status prior to a trauma and individual characteristics, can help determine those who will be more vulnerable to developing mental health problems. [114] 3 000 buildings in total were inspected, of that total 45% were deemed unsafe and were given a yellow or red sticker. [68] By mid-2019 early design and stabilisation work had begun. The last survivor was pulled from the rubble the day after the quake. Liquefaction is the process of soil particles liquefying because they have been disturbed by secondary waves and then they re-arrange, meaning that soil mass compacts and decreases in volume, allowing water to come to the surface of a land area. Subsequent population loss saw the Christchurch main urban area fall behind the Wellington equivalent to decrease from second to third most populous area in New Zealand. Looking at territorial areas only, i.e. Even though the February 2011 earthquake was smaller in magnitude than the September 2010 earthquake, its impact was much greater. The scale of the destruction all but defies belief when we can appreciate only too well how difficult it must have been struggling to come to terms with last year's horror ... Our deepest sympathy and constant thoughts are with you and all New Zealanders. [127][128][129][130][131] Many of them received standing ovations from appreciative locals as they walked through Christchurch Airport upon arrival. [153], The army also operated desalination plants to provide water to the eastern suburbs. Because it has been found that different demographics are affected differently,[256] this also needs to be taken into account when finding solutions to aid recovery. Perceptions of distress and positive consequences following exposure to a major disaster amongst a well-studied cohort. [149] They were supplemented by 116 soldiers from the Singapore Army, in Christchurch for a training exercise at the time of the earthquake, who assisted in the cordon of the city. The earthquake in February 2011 occurred at 12:51 p.m. and just 10 kilometers (6 miles) … (This is 23:51 21 February UTC). The Christchurch rebuild is forecast to start in earnest during the second half of 2012, continuing through to at least 2016. Evidence from research on the Christchurch earthquakes reveals that increased trauma exposure is not exclusively correlated with negative outcomes. EQC chief executive Ian Simpson said that the $4 billion cap for each earthquake is unlikely to be exceeded by the costs of residential building and land repairs, so $3 billion would be left in the EQC's Natural Disaster Fund after payouts. At the sight of the Christchurch earthquake and other earthquakes worldwide, liquefaction can take place. [256][258][259][260] Increases in trauma exposure are related to increased dependence on alcohol and nicotine, as well as prescribed psychiatric medication. [206], Canterbury University partially reopened on 14 March 2011, with many lectures held in tents and marquees while work was carried out on university buildings. Bottom: Transform. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 M w earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST (02:20 UTC).It was centred at a depth of 7 km (4.3 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) south-east of Christchurch, which had previously been devastated by a magnitude 6.2 M W earthquake in February 2011. [121] A full response management structure was put in place within minutes of the quake, with the Christchurch City Council's alternate Emergency Operations Centre re-established in the City Art Gallery and the regional Canterbury CDEM Group Emergency Coordination Centre (ECC) activated in its post-earthquake operational facility adjacent to the Canterbury Regional Council offices. They also provided forensic analysis and evidence gathering at fatalities and Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams, working closely with pathologists, forensic dentists and scientists, and the coroner at the emergency mortuary established at Burnham Military Camp. During the Canterbury earthquakes of September 2010 and February 2011, liquefaction caused silt and fine sand to boil up and bury streets and gardens and caused buildings and vehicles to sink. [258][262] It's thought that natural disasters, such as earthquakes, are able to induce these positive effects because they affect an entire community, in comparison to an event that targets only an individual. [50] Because the earthquake hit during the lunch hour, some people on the footpaths were buried by collapsed buildings. After 7 years, the school is set to be moved to Redcliffs Park in 2020. Dorahy, M.J., Rowlands, A., Renouf, C., Hanna, D., Britt, E., & Carter, J.D. Within two hours of the quake national co-ordination was operating from the National Crisis Management Centre located in the basement of the Beehive in Wellington.[119]. [152] The Royal Australian Air Force also assisted with air lifts. It excluded the investigation of any questions of liability, the earthquake search and rescue effort, and the rebuilding of the city. The hidden fault that caused the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. The earthquake was felt across the South Island and parts of the lower and central North Island. On 6 June, a large aftershock measuring 5.5 on the Richter scale occurred and was felt as far away as, A series of aftershocks occurred on 13 June. The earthquake's epicentre was at 43.58 degrees S and 172.68 degrees E, the devastating earthquake was caused by a hidden fault (Port Hills Fault) that had shifted. A September 2010 earthquake centered 40 kilometers (25 miles) west of Christchurch, in the plains near Darfield, struck at 4:35 a.m., had a magnitude of 7.1, and caused some structural damage and one death (by heart attack). Language schools and other groups catering for international students were hit particularly hard, with international enrolments dropping by 57% between 2010 and 2012. Central Business District (CBD) then and now.Song: In the House, In a Heartbeat - John Murphy The fault that caused the quake cannot be seen from the surface, but it runs about 6 km south of the city centre. Aftershocks were concentrated at the east end of the fault towards Christchurch as rock distorted by the original earthquake adjusted to new stresses. Scope of Project Following the major earthquake on 22nd February 2011, Christchurch was in a State of Emergency, with urgent works required throughout the city. Christchurch, the country’s second largest city, suffered widespread damage, particularly in the central city and eastern suburbs. (This is 23:51 21 February UTC). The Christchurch earthquake caused extensive damage to infrastructure and buildings. ... We will be doing everything we can to work with our New Zealand family, with Prime Minister Key and his emergency services personnel, his military officers, his medical people, his search and rescue teams. [45], Road and bridge damage occurred and hampered rescue efforts. Impact of average household income and damage exposure on post-earthquake distress and functioning, A community study following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. The fault that caused the quake cannot be seen from the surface, but it runs about 6 km south of the city centre. With the maximum intensity of MM 9, it caused around 183 deaths. The September earthquake happen… Porirua, Upper Hutt, and Lower Hutt, all outside of the Wellington City Council area, are included in the Wellington main urban area definition. Christchurch Earthquake response. [204] While emergency repairs were performed on damaged houses by Fletcher Construction, rebuilding would be delayed by the need for full land assessments, with the possibility that some of the worst-affected areas in the eastern suburbs might need to be abandoned due to land depression and severe liquefaction, with the residents offered relocation to new subdivisions under their EQC insurance policies. What was the cost of the earthquake? For personal effects, EQC pays out the first NZ$20,000 plus tax. Scientists have thus had to rely on measurements using a variety of techniques and instruments to determine its location and the nature of its movement. The centre of Christchurch City and the eastern suburbs were badly affected. On 13th June 2011 two large earthquakes measuring 5.5 and 6.3 on the Richter Scale hit Christchurch City, in the South Island of New Zealand. [28] The acceleration experienced in February 2011 would "totally flatten" most world cities, causing massive loss of life; in Christchurch, New Zealand's stringent building codes limited the disaster. [105], At the Tasman Glacier some 200 kilometres (120 miles) from the epicentre, around 30 million tonnes (33 million ST) of ice tumbled off the glacier into Tasman Lake, hitting tour boats with tsunami waves 3.5 metres (11 ft) high. The fault slopes southward beneath the Port Hills and did not break the surface – scientists used instrument measurements to determine its location and movement. The February earthquake occurred during lunchtime on a weekday when the CBD was busy, and many buildings were already weakened from the previous quakes. The 2011 Canterbury Earthquakes caused significant damage. [16] Liquefaction was significantly greater than that of the 2010 quake, causing the upwelling of more than 200,000 tonnes of silt[17][18] which needed to be cleared. [262] Depressive symptoms before a disaster can predict higher chances of developing PTSD following a trauma. Welfare Centres and support networks were established throughout the city. Many thousands of people suffe… NSW Task Force 1, a team of 72 urban search and rescue specialists from New South Wales, Australia was sent to Christchurch on two RAAF C-130J Hercules, arriving 12 hours after the quake. Rhodes, B., & Becker, L. (2013). The EQC again covers all amounts above NZ$4 billion. As per the protocols of New Zealand's Coordinated Incident Management System, the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act, and the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan and Guide, Civil Defence Emergency Management became lead agency—with the Director of the Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management John Hamilton as National Controller. Approximately 450 fully serviced mobile homes would be located on sites across the city including Canterbury Agricultural Park and Riccarton Racecourse. Erskine, N., Daley, V., Stevenson, Su. [233] Christchurch earthquake: 10,000 homes face demolition ... Mon 7 Mar 2011 03.22 EST. (2014). In April 2013, the rebuilding cost of Christchurch and the surrounding Canterbury region was estimated at $40 billion. He said Australia would send counsellors over and a disaster medical assistance team comprising 23 emergency and surgical personnel. Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti could not return to its central city buildings due to demolitions and it has no long term site. A composite "Christchurch Response Centre" was established in the Christchurch Art Gallery, a modern earthquake-resilient building in the centre of the city which had sustained only minor damage. It struck the Canterbury region of the island and caused a lot of damage and many deaths in Christchurch, New Zealand's second largest city.. M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011. [162], Thousands of people helped with the clean-up efforts—involving the removal of over 200,000 tonnes of liquefaction silt—including Canterbury University's Student Volunteer Army which was created in response to the earthquake that September and the Federated Farmers' "Farmy Army". The Governor-General also had to revoke his previous proclamation of the date of the census. A chaplain spoke, then the two minute silence followed, broken only by a solitary … [64] The building was thought to be irreparably damaged and have the potential to bring down other buildings if it fell; an area of a two-block radius around the hotel was thus evacuated. The February 2011 Christchurch earthquake had a large impact on the school: it caused extensive damage to the current site; the old Cranmer Centre site was damaged so badly that it was later demolished – and the school's principal at the time, Prue Taylor, lost her husband Brian in the CTV Building collapse. [209], 163 primary and secondary schools were affected by the earthquake, most of which were closed for three weeks; 90 had full structural clearance and were able to reopen, 24 had reports indicating further assessment and 11 were seriously damaged. The census was ultimately deferred to 5 March 2013. New Zealand is on the edge of a tectonic plate and is prone to earthquakes, same as Japan & California. [138][139] Middle: Convergent The proposals were heavily criticised for relying on incorrect information,[218] leading one school, Phillipstown Primary, to seek a judicial review over its proposed merger with Woolston Primary. They took into account a technical investigation undertaken by the Department of Building and Housing. In September 2012, Minister of Education Hekia Parata announced plans to permanently close and/or merge a number of schools due to falling roll numbers and quake damage. Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, J., Boden, J.M., & Mulder, R.T. (2014). That would make it the third most costly earthquake event in history, after the 2011 Japan and 1994 California earthquakes. The EQC further limits its own risk by taking out cover with a number of large reinsurance companies, for example Munich Re. Once the composite Christchurch Coordination Centre was established on 23 February the CDEM Group Controllers and ECC personnel relocated to the City Art Gallery to supplement the management personnel available to the National Controller. Christchurch's strongest local earthquake in more than a year may have been generated by the same fault that caused the damaging Boxing Day quake in 2010. The primarily wilderness all-volunteer search and rescue organisation, LandSAR, deployed 530 people to the city to perform welfare checks. The cliff behind Redcliffs School collapsed onto the houses below. On Tuesday 22 February 2011 at 12.51 p.m. Christchurch was badly damaged by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake, which killed 185 people and injured several thousand. [143][144] China sent a 10-member specialist rescue team. "[180][181], David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, issued a statement and sent SMS text messages to Commonwealth prime ministers. The fault which the Christchurch quake of 2011 occurred on was unknown before the event. [7] Fire-fighting and recovery operations resumed that night,[58] later joined by a Japanese search and rescue squad. [230] AMI Stadium was going to host the rugby league ANZAC Test, however, on 4 March it was announced the match would be moved to Skilled Park on the Gold Coast. Staff were grateful that they did not have to employ triage, but were able to deal with all patients. 3 000 buildings in total were inspected, of that total 45% were deemed unsafe and were given a yellow or red sticker. [11][12] According to GNS Science seismologists, the energy released in Christchurch was equivalent to a magnitude 6.7 earthquake. The earthquake first er upted 5 km south-east of Christchurch at 12:51pm (local time 23:51:43 GMT) on the 22 of February 2011. [237], In the year to June 2011, the population of Christchurch had fallen by 8,900 people or 2.4% of its population, with a historic annual population growth of 1%. [24], The upwards (positive acceleration) was greater than the downwards, which had a maximum recording of 0.9g; the maximum recorded horizontal acceleration was 1.7g[26] The force of the earthquake was "statistically unlikely" to occur more than once in 1000 years, according to one seismic engineer, with a PGA greater than many modern buildings were designed to withstand. [100] Large boulders were found on the lawns of damaged houses. [182], Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, issued a statement on behalf of the UN expressing his "deep sadness" and stressed the "readiness of the United Nations to contribute to its efforts in any way needed". [107] KiwiRail also delayed 14 March departure of its Interislander ferry Aratere to Singapore for a 30-metre (98 ft) extension and refit prior to the 2011 Rugby World Cup. More than 361 aftershocks occurred in the first week following the 6.3-magnitude earthquake. [187], Pope Benedict XVI issued an announcement on the earthquake in a statement during his Wednesday audience on 23 February, stating that he was praying for the dead and the injured victims of the devastating earthquake, and encouraging those involved in the rescue efforts. 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