http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm166931.htm, Advance data from vital and health statistics no 258, http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/fanrr36/fanrr36.pdf, http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/files/ENAcute_Diarrhoea_reprint.pdf, Oysters, cooked, breaded and fried, 3 ounces, Baked beans, canned, plain or vegetarian, ½ cup, Breakfast cereal, fortified with 25% of the DV for zinc, 1 serving, Oatmeal, instant, plain, prepared with water, 1 packet, Chicken breast, roasted, skin removed, ½ breast. [, Caruso TJ, Prober CG, Gwaltney JM Jr. After an average follow-up period of 6.3 years, supplementation with antioxidants plus zinc (but not antioxidants alone) significantly reduced the risk of developing advanced AMD and reduced visual acuity loss. Vegetarians can also increase their zinc intake by consuming more leavened grain products (such as bread) than unleavened products (such as crackers) because leavening partially breaks down the phytate; thus, the body absorbs more zinc from leavened grains than unleavened grains. [, Jafek BW, Linschoten MR, Murrow BW. Zinc is also found in many cold lozenges and some over-the-counter drugs sold as cold remedies. Clinicians consider risk factors (such as inadequate caloric intake, alcoholism, and digestive diseases) and symptoms of zinc deficiency (such as impaired growth in infants and children) when determining the need for zinc supplementation [2]. Interagency Board for Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets. [, World Health Organization and United Nations Children Fund. Specific environments for nickel are also indicated for nucleic acids (or nucleic acid-binding proteins), since nickel activates the gene for hydrogenase.15, Manganese plays a critical role in oxygen evolution catalyzed by the proteins of the photosynthetic reaction center. Much of the zinc in animals and plants has no known function, but it may be maintaining the structures of proteins that activate and deactivate genes.11. Thiazide diuretics such as chlorthalidone (Hygroton®) and hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrix® and HydroDIURIL®) increase urinary zinc excretion by as much as 60% [93]. The FNB has established ULs for zinc (Table 3). Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, et al. Zinc measurements are used to detect and monitor industrial, dietary, and accidental exposure to zinc. Oysters contain more zinc per serving than any other food, but red meat and poultry provide the majority of zinc in the American diet. [, Broun ER, Greist A, Tricot G, Hoffman R. Excessive zinc ingestion. However, the authors of a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2007 concluded that zinc is not effective for the primary prevention of early AMD [77], although zinc might reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD. However, research has not shown that the general use of zinc sulfate in patients with chronic leg ulcers or arterial or venous ulcers is effective [61,62]. Nutrition 1995;11:93-9. For a reader-friendly overview of Zinc, see our consumer fact sheet on Zinc. Zinc is an essential trace element that activates several hundred enzymatic reactions. Thus, the bioavailability of zinc from grains and plant foods is lower than that from animal foods, although many grain- and plant-based foods are still good sources of zinc [2]. Missed the LibreFest? This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. Does oral zinc aid the healing of chronic leg ulcers? Proc Nutr Soc 2000;59:541-52. Cobalt is found in vitamin B12 , its only apparent biological site.12 The vitamin is a cyano complex, but a methyl or methylene group replaces CN in native enzymes. Zinc is widely used for plating that imparts corrosion resistant upper layer to various metals. Acquired acrodermatitis enteropathica. It is required for the catalytic activity of approximately 100 enzymes [1,2] and it plays a role in immune function [3,4], protein synthesis [4], wound healing [5], DNA synthesis [2,4], and cell division [4]. Zinc can reduce the absorption and action of penicillamine, a drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis [92]. [, American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada. Second, the biological roles of each remain largely unknown.18 Finally, each has served as a probe to characterize the sites of other metals, such as iron and zinc. Zinc deficiency, infectious disease and mortality in the developing world. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1167-73. [, Hulisz D. Efficacy of zinc against common cold viruses: an overview. Patients with chronic leg ulcers have abnormal zinc metabolism and low serum zinc levels [59], and clinicians frequently treat skin ulcers with zinc supplements [60]. Zinc Sulfate. Dermatology 1996;193:361-3. Chromium imbalance affects sugar metabolism and has been associated with the glucose tolerance factor in animals. Supplemental zinc might also be appropriate in certain situations. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005:271-85. Lutein + zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration: the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial. Reductions in a copper-containing enzyme, a marker of copper status, have been reported with even moderately high zinc intakes of approximately 60 mg/day for up to 10 weeks [2]. Vanadium in a sea squirt (tunicate), a primitive vertebrate (Figure 1.2B), is concentrated in blood cells, apparently as the major cellular transition metal, but whether it participates in the transport of dioxygen (as iron and copper do) is not known. [, Bahl R, Bhandari N, Hambidge KM, Bhan MK. The DV for zinc on the new Nutrition Facts and Supplement Facts labels and used for the values in Table 2 is 11 mg for adults and children aged 4 years and older [15]. [, Shankar AH, Prasad AS. Serum zinc and pneumonia in nursing home elderly. However, use of stored iron is reduced by copper deficiency, which suggests that iron metabolism may depend on copper proteins, such as the serum protein ceruloplasmin, which can function as a ferroxidase, and the cellular protein ascorbic acid oxidase, which also is a ferrireductase. King JC, Cousins RJ. Am J Physiol 1997;272:E1002-7. For these reasons, the RDA for zinc is higher for pregnant and lactating women than for other women (see Table 1) [2]. Zinc tests can also measure elevated serum zinc levels, although research suggests that this is of minimal clinical interest because it’s a rare occurrence. More recently, a Cochrane review concluded that "zinc (lozenges or syrup) is beneficial in reducing the duration and severity of the common cold in healthy people, when taken within 24 hours of onset of symptoms" [73]. Supplements contain several forms of zinc, including zinc gluconate, zinc sulfate, and zinc acetate. Sometimes equivalent reactions are catalyzed by proteins with different metal centers; the metal binding sites and proteins have evolved separately for each type of metal center. Pancreas 1994;9:270-4. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51 (1 Suppl):S17-9. [, Alexander TH, Davidson TM. Acta Med Scand 1980;208:209-12. A few examples are provided below. Zinc is not stored in the body; therefore, dietary intake is required. Visual acuity loss was not significantly affected by zinc supplementation alone. [, Dixon LB, Winkleby MA, Radimer KL. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Have a question? Zinc is a common element in nucleic-acid polymerases and transcription factors, where its role is considered to be structural rather than catalytic. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1996;37:1225-35. Zinc is a common element in nucleic-acid polymerases and transcription factors, where its role is considered to be structural rather than catalytic. [. Zinc is also present in some denture adhesive creams at levels ranging from 17–34 mg/g [20]. Scand J Gastroenterol 1998;33:514-23. Your body doesn’t store zinc, so regular intake is required to avoid a deficiency. Zinc is important for growth and for the development and health of body tissues. Other diseases associated with zinc deficiency include malabsorption syndrome, chronic liver disease, chronic renal disease, sickle cell disease, diabetes, malignancy, and other chronic illnesses [40]. Taking iron supplements between meals helps decrease its effect on zinc absorption [83]. Some of the activities that zinc are involved in: Effect of marginal zinc deficiency on human growth and development. Clinical management of acute diarrhoea. Ineffectiveness of zinc gluconate nasal spray and zinc orotate lozenges in common-cold treatment: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. [, Valberg LS, Flanagan PR, Kertesz A, Bondy DC. The bioavailability of zinc from vegetarian diets is lower than from non-vegetarian diets because vegetarians do not eat meat, which is high in bioavailable zinc and may enhance zinc absorption. However, large amounts of supplemental iron (greater than 25 mg) might decrease zinc absorption [2,83]. Significance of Zinc in a human body APRIL 20, 2016. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 50 subjects (within 24 hours of developing the common cold) took a zinc acetate lozenge (13.3 mg zinc) or placebo every 2–3 wakeful hours. Zinc is also important to wound healing and your sense of taste and smell.With a varied diet, your body usually gets enough zinc. All other known Mo-proteins are also Fe-proteins with iron centers, such as tetrapyrroles (heme and chlorins), Fe-sulfur clusters, and, apparently, non-heme/non-sulfur iron. The authors of a systematic review concluded that zinc sulfate might be effective for treating leg ulcers in some patients who have low serum zinc levels [61,62]. Kids need to get enough zinc in their diets because of its influence on cell development, meaning a lack of … J Am Med Assoc 1980;244:1960-1. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. [, Kang YJ, Zhou Z. Zinc prevention and treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Such data indicate the importance of mechanisms for accumulation, storage, and transport of transition metals and zinc in living organisms. Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Of the trace minerals, this element is second only to iron in its concentration in the body. Zinc extraction is done in three steps. All the Ni-proteins known to date are from plants or bacteria.13,14 However, about 50 years elapsed between the crystallization of jack-bean urease in 1925 and the identification of the nickel component in the plant protein. Zinc is relatively abundant in biological materials.8,9 The major location of zinc in the body is metallothionein, which also binds copper, chromium, mercury, and other metals. [, Naber TH, van den Hamer CJ, Baadenhuysen H, Jansen JB. Research has not determined whether differences exist among forms of zinc in absorption, bioavailability, or tolerability. [, Prasad AS. Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1516-22. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. [, Lansdown AB, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, Scanlon E, Agren MS. Zinc in wound healing: theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. Effect of treatment with zinc gluconate or zinc acetate on experimental and natural colds. Biological Significance of Zinc The zinc atomic structure plays an integral role in every other living organism. Zinc supplementation significantly reduced visual acuity loss in one of the studies [81] but had no effect in the other [82]. Severe zinc deficiency depresses immune function [51], and even mild to moderate degrees of zinc deficiency can impair macrophage and neutrophil functions, natural killer cell activity, and complement activity [52]. 2009 Feb;5(2):106-11. 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